Lung cancer comprises a group of malignant epithelial tumours arising from cells lining the lower respiratory tract. Lung cancer is divided into two categories: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer. SCLC accounts for more than 20% of all lung cancers.
They are responsible for paraneoplastic syndrome, as their cells contain neurosecretory granules that can release neuroendocrine hormones.
Approximately 45% of NSCLC are adenocarcinomas, which tend to be located more peripherally in the lung.
Paraneoplastic presentations include:
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH) caused by ectopic ADH secretion by a small cell lung cancer and presents with hyponatraemia.
Cushing’s syndrome can be caused by ectopic ACTH secretion by a small cell lung cancer.
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome presenting as weakness. It is as a result of antibodies produced by the immune system against small cell lung cancer cells.
Treatment regimens vary depending on the stage of cancer.
Survival after definitive treatment and on the stage of disease and ability to undergo standard treatment.